báo điện tử TRÁCH NHIỆM do Khu Hội CTNCT Việt Nam Nam California chủ trương

                                                          *  hoạt động từ 26/4/2008  *
                      

"Những thông tin trên trang web này thể hiện quyền tự do ngôn luận của người đưa tin; và quyền được tiếp cận thông tin đầy đủ của người đọc."

                                                                                                                                              

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


POWERFUL: VIETNAMESE Trump Supporter EXPLOSIVE Interview 8/14/19


 BẤT NGỜ NGƯỜI DA ĐEN QUAY 180 ĐỘ ỦNG HỘ TT TRUMP PHẢN ĐỐI ĐỘNG THÁI PELOSI

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Ann Nguyen: Make American Great Again & nhiều videos thời sự
 

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George Floyd chết không phải v́ cảnh sát, mà v́...ma túy'

(Sự kiện) - Chính trị gia Paul Roberts bàn về bản chất các “cuộc biểu t́nh ôn ḥa” ở Mỹ và cách áp đặt chủ nghĩa phân biệt chủng tộc vào tư duy người Mỹ.

Xin giới thiệu bài viết với tiêu đề và phụ đề trên của học giả Mỹ Paul Craig Robert. Bài đăng trên “Svobodnaia Pressa”ngày 21/6/2020 qua bản dịch sang tiếng Nga của tác giả X. Dukhanov.

  

Paul Craig Robert

Xin giới thiệu tóm tắt về tác giả Paul Craig Robert: Tiến sỹ kinh tế - nguyên Thứ trưởng Bộ Tài chính Hoa Kỳ thời Tổng thống Ronald Reagan.

Chủ biên Đường lối kinh tế của chính phủ Mỹ từ năm 1981-1989 dưới tên gọi "Reaganomics". Biên tập viên và bình luận viên Tạp chí Phố Wall, tạp chí Businessweek và Hãng thông tấn Scripps Howard News Service.

Từng phụ trách một chuyên mục trên tờ Thời báo Washington; là tác giả của nhiều cuốn sách viết về những vấn đề lớn nhất của thời đại chúng ta.

Sau đây là nội dung bài báo:

  Biểu t́nh ở New York. Ảnh: AP/TASS  

Không phải cảnh sát giết George Floyd. Theo một báo cáo xét nghiệm độc tính vừa mới công bố, G. Floyd chết v́ trong máu anh ta có fentanyl với nồng độ cao gấp ba lần mức gây chết người.

Fentanyl là một loại ma túy nguy hiểm, mạnh hơn heroin tới 50 lần. Bạn có thể đọc và kiểm tra tất cả những điều này trong bài báo: “Có thể George Floyd đă chết v́ dùng ma túy quá liều?”. Trong bài báo trên có dẫn các kết quả báo cáo khám nghiệm tử thi.

Xin các vị hăy dành một phút để suy ngẫm về chuyện này. Điều ǵ sẽ xảy ra với một xă hội khi mà trong xă hội đó sự thật đă không c̣n một ư nghĩa nào nữa?

Các phương tiện truyền thông Hoa Kỳ, Đảng Dân chủ, những người tự do da trắng cùng những lời thanh minh xin lỗi (người da màu) từ phía những người (da trắng) cánh tả đă “dồn tất cả” cho công cuộc” chống “chủ nghĩa phân biệt chủng tộc da trắng”- đến mức đă vội vàng đưa ra các kết luận theo cách họ muốn và bằng cách đó đă “truyền cảm hứng” cho các cuộc bạo loạn và cướp bóc, hôi của dẫn đến hậu quả là nhiều thành phố Mỹ phải chịu những tổn thất nặng nề về tài sản, một số người đă bị giết, nhiều người bị tàn tật, c̣n mối quan hệ giữa các chủng tộc đă xấu đi nghiêm trọng.

Các đảng viên Đảng Dân chủ giữ chức thị trưởng và thống đốc bang – đă từ chối thực hiện bổn phận của ḿnh. Cảnh sát và Vệ binh Quốc gia, những người đang cố gắng kiềm chế bạo lực, lại không nhận được sự ủng hộ.

Ngay cả Chủ tịch Hội đồng Tham mưu trưởng Liên quân và Bộ trưởng Quốc pḥng do chính ông D.Trump bổ nhiệm cũng cam chịu nạn bạo loạn và cướp bóc và bằng cách đó đă phá hoại vị thế của tổng thống, người đang có ư định hành động kiên quyết để dẹp cuộc nổi loạn.

Công việc làm ăn kinh doanh của nhiều người đă bị hủy hoại, nhưng trong phần lớn các trường hợp, các công ty bảo hiểm sẽ không chi trả bồi thường những thiệt hại do bạo loạn gây ra.

Các chính trị gia và các phương tiện truyền thông Mỹ sẽ phải chịu trách nhiệm về những thiệt hại hàng tỷ đô la do "các cuộc biểu t́nh ôn ḥa" gây ra. Những người bị hại chắc chắn sẽ phải khởi kiện tập thể.

Khi các sĩ quan cảnh sát ở bang Minnesota bị cố t́nh buộc tội giết George Floyd ra ṭa, bồi thẩm đoàn sẽ v́ sợ nên phải kết án họ. Câu chuyện này được khắc trên đá, và có quá nhiều nhóm lợi ích mạnh can dự rồi.

Các phương tiện truyền thông đă thực hiện một cuộc điều tra và xét xử (thay cho cơ quan chức năng) chống lại cảnh sát rồi.

Và bồi thẩm đoàn v́ sợ nên sẽ không dám đi ngược lại định hướng dư luận đă được tạo ra bởi giới truyền thông và những người tự do da trắng.

Những tác động kiểu này sẽ gây ra những hậu quả thảm khốc đối với tinh thần của của cảnh sát và những cam kết duy tŕ luật pháp và trật tự của họ. Cảnh sát giờ đă phải lùi bước khi phải đối mặt với những tội ác do người “da màu” thực hiện.

Người da đen đă biết được rằng họ được miễn dịch (không bị trừng phạt) trước những hành vi hung hăng của chính ḿnh.

Đối với bọn tội phạm, các cuộc biểu t́nh kiểu như thế này là một cơ hội béo bở để kiếm lời. Hăy chờ xem, chắc chắn là sẽ c̣n nhiều cuộc “biểu t́nh ôn ḥa” hơn nữa.

Những sự lạm dụng cực đoan xảy ra ở Miền Nam nước Mỹ trong giai đoạn Tái thiết * đă đầu độc mối quan hệ giữa người da trắng và người da đen.

Đến năm 1900, khi các chính trị gia miền Nam như James C. Vardaman ** ở Mississippi giành lại được quyền lực từ “các túi tiền” (nhà giàu) và giới quư tộc Miền Nam, đă bắt đầu nuôi dưỡng ḷng căm thù chủng tộc đối với người da đen.

Những người như James C. Vardaman cũng tận dụng quy tŕnh bầu cử để đánh bại các nhà lănh đạo miền Nam - như Leroy Percy **, một người rất hăng hái hoạt động nhằm xây dựng một sự ḥa hợp nhất định trong mối quan hệ giữa các chủng tộc.

Ngày nay, quá tŕnh này đă được đảo ngược. Bây giờ th́ chính những người tự do da trắng đồng hành với những người da đen lại đang châm ng̣i cho sự căm ghét chủng tộc đối với người da trắng.

Những người tự do da trắng đă dựng nên một câu chuyện giả mạo được h́nh tượng hóa bằng “Dự án New York Times” 1619 *** với một định đề là nước Mỹ được h́nh thành trên nền tảng của chủ nghĩa phân biệt chủng tộc da trắng.

Cách nghĩ này giờ đă “ngấm” vào hệ thống giáo dục và trên các phương tiện truyền thông đại chúng. Điều đó có nghĩa là t́nh trạng chia rẽ giữa người da trắng và người da đen chỉ có thể ngày càng trở nên tồi tệ hơn.

Chính cái chính sách (duy tŕ) bản sắc- hệ tư tưởng chính thức của Đảng Dân chủ và những người cánh tả Mỹ, đă làm chia rẽ dân chúng Mỹ. Người Mỹ được chia thành các nhóm thù địch nhau dựa trên dấu hiệu chủng tộc, giới tính và sở thích t́nh dục.

Cả Đảng Dân chủ và những người cánh tả đều đă không c̣n có thể đại diện cho giai cấp công nhân được nữa- đối với họ, giờ giai cấp này đă trở thành kẻ thù – là những "Trump đáng khinh" rồi.

Bằng cách chia rẽ nhân dân Mỹ, giới tinh hoa cầm quyền đă làm cho họ không c̣n có thể chống lại ḿnh một cách hiệu quả được nữa. V́ sự mất đoàn kết (của nhân dân) luôn phục vụ cho lợi ích của giới cầm quyền- nên giới cầm quyền họ sẽ cố duy tŕ trạng thái chia rẽ đó.

Chúng ta sẽ c̣n phải chứng kiến ḷng thù hận chủng tộc hoành hành trong tương lai.

Liệu có thể hy vọng rằng một số nhân vật có trách nhiệm nào đó trong cộng đồng dân chúng da đen tiến lên phía trước một bước và hợp tác với người da trắng để xây dựng một t́nh bạn giữa các chủng tộc, thứ mà một xă hội đa văn hóa rất cần không?

Bất kỳ một người Mỹ da đen nào nếu cố gắng trở thành một nhà lănh đạo như vậy sẽ bị truy đuổi ngay (khỏi cộng đồng) như một “Bác Tom” tận tụy “làm tay sai” cho “bọn phân biệt chủng tộc da trắng”.

Cả ở Mỹ và cả ở thế giới Phương Tây, sự thật giờ đă không c̣n quan trọng nữa.

Những bằng chứng thực tế nhưng không phù hợp với các cảm xúc được đánh thức đều sẽ bị bác bỏ và sẽ bị gán cho là phân biệt chủng tộc hoặc phân biệt giới tính, hoặc là một h́nh thức tội lỗi nào đó khác nữa.

Nói cách khác, tại nước Mỹ, sự thật đă mất đi sức mạnh của ḿnh. Không thể c̣n dùng sự thật để đấu tranh với các hệ tư tưởng phá hoại được nữa. Bạn có thể tự ḿnh kiểm tra nhận định này.

Hăy thử cố gắng thuyết phục CNN, New York Times, NPR, một giáo sư tự do da trắng thành viên của Antif nào đó, hay là một người biểu t́nh da đen rằng George Floyd đă tự giết ḿnh do sử dụng ma túy quá liều xem.

Chắc chắn họ sẽ bác bỏ cái báo cáo về độc tính đó với lư do là bản báo cáo này được bịa ra nhằm bao che cho bạo lực phân biệt chủng tộc của cảnh sát đối với người da đen, và bạn sẽ bị cáo buộc là người ủng hộ chủ nghĩa phân biệt chủng tộc và là đệ tử của hệ tư tưởng về sự ưu việt của người da trắng.

Những cách giải thích về phân biệt chủng tộc của Mỹ hiện nay luôn hướng tới việc kích động ḷng hận thù của những người da đen và cảm giác có lỗi của những người da trắng. Và bởi v́ sự thù địch của người da đen ngày càng tăng và sự tự tin của người da trắng ngày càng giảm, xă hội sẽ sụp đổ.

Như tôi đă từng viết, Mỹ và toàn bộ thế giới Phương Tây đang sống trong “Trại của các vị Thánh” ****.

Phần chú thích (của tác giả)

* Tái thiết miền Nam – một giai đoạn trong lịch sử nước Mỹ, ngay sau khi Nội chiến kết thúc, từ năm 1865 đến năm 1877, đây là thời kỳ tái ḥa nhập các bang Miền Nam của Liên minh miền Nam bị bại trận vào xă hội Mỹ. Đây cùng là thời gian hệ thống nô lệ bị băi bỏ trên toàn nước Mỹ.

** Leroy Percy (9 tháng 11 năm 1860 - 24 tháng 12 năm 1929) - luật sư, chủ đồn điền, và một chính trị gia Bang Mississippi. Năm 1910, ông được cơ quan lập pháp bang bầu vào Thượng viện Hoa Kỳ và làm việc tại Thượng Viện đến năm 1913.

Thua nhà dân túy James Vardaman trong cuộc bầu cử thượng nghị sỹ toàn quốc đầu tiên Hoa Kỳ tại Mississippi năm 1912 (James Kimble Vardaman, 26 tháng 7 năm 1861 - 25 tháng 6 năm 1930).

J. Vardaman, một người nổi tiếng với biệt danh “Thủ lĩnh DaTrắng Vĩ đại” đă nhận được sự ủng hộ của cử tri nhờ tuyên truyền chủ nghĩa dân túy và sự ưu việt của người da trắng.

*** Dự án 1619 là một dự án đang được thực hiện do báo New York Times khởi xướng vào năm 2019 với mục tiêu: “xem xét lại di sản của chế độ nô lệ tại Hoa Kỳ nhân kỷ niệm 400 năm ngày xuất hiện của người ‘Châu Phi đầu tiên” trên đất Virginia”.

**** “Trại của các Vị Thánh” (tên gọi khác là “Trại của những người được chọn” - The Camp of the Saints – cuốn tiểu thuyết xuất bản năm 1973 của tác giả và nhà nghiên cứu Công giáo Jean Raspail.

Tiểu thuyết này mô tả qúa tŕnh diệt vong của nền văn minh Phương Tây do các làn sóng nhập cư của dân chúng từ các nước thế giới thứ ba vào nước Pháp và các nước Phương Tây khác

Lê Hùng- Nguyễn Hoàng (dịch)

Nguồn: https://baodatviet.vn/the-gioi/su-kien/george-floyd-chet-khong-phai-vi-canh-sat-ma-vi-ma-tuy-3409184/ 

hay

https://basam.co/2020/06/22/742-my-george-floyd-chet-khong-phai-vi-canh-sat-ma-vi-ma-tuy/

Đôi lời: Một tin chấn động, không chỉ với đảng Dân chủ Mỹ, nước Mỹ, mà cả nhiều nước.

Nhưng không hẳn v́ tin vào một bài viết này. Mà đó là nó thức tỉnh tất cả những ai đang bị hội chứng đám đông lôi cuốn.

Trong một bài viết mới sáng nay của Ba Sàm (vừa lên trang Cuồng Trump”, “cuồng chống Trump” Phần 1 và Phần 2) đă nhắc nhở bà con người Việt về vụ này, rằng hăy nhớ lại vụ Đồng Tâm, chớ vội “tuyên án” thay ṭa, “vinh danh” theo … chính trị, mà phải theo pháp lư.

Ba Sàm

George Floyd Was Not Killed By Police

Paul Craig Roberts

George Floyd was not killed by police.  According to the toxicology report, Floyd died from a concentration of Fentanyl in his blood three times the fatal dose. Fentanyl is a dangerous opioid 50 times more potent than heroin. You can read the analysis here—https://www.unz.com/article/or-did-george-floyd-die-of-a-drug-overdose/ .  A link is provided to the autopsy report.

Think about this for a minute.  What becomes of a society in which facts do not matter? The US media, Democrat Party, white liberals, and the sorry excuse for a leftwing are so primed for “white racism” that they jumped to their desired conclusion and egged on riots and looting that resulted in massive property damage in multiple cities, some deaths, many injuries, and much damage to racial relations. Democrat mayors and governors stood down. Police and National Guard attempting to contain the violence were not supported. Even the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Trump’s Secretary of Defense accommodated the rioting and looting by undermining President Trump’s stand against it. Many people’s businesses were wiped out, and in most cases insurance does not cover damage from riots. The politicians and the media are responsible for the billions of dollars the “peaceful protests” cost. Those who suffered the damage should bring class action suits.

 When the Minnesota police, who have been falsely charged with George Floyd’s murder, are tried, the jurors will be afraid not to convict. The story is set in stone, and too many powerful interests are committed to it. The police have already been tried and convicted in the media, and the jurors will fear going against public opinion that the media and white liberals have orchestrated. The effect on police morale and commitment will be devastating. Already police are standing down when faced with crimes committed by “people of color.” Blacks are learning that they have immunity from their violent behavior. For the criminal element, protests are profit opportunities.  Expect more “peaceful protests.”

The extraordinary abuses imposed on the defeated South by Reconstruction poisoned the relations between whites and blacks. By 1900 Southern politicians, such as James K. Vardaman of Mississippi, in efforts to wrest power from money and the southern aristocracy cultivated racial hatred toward blacks among poor whites and used the electoral process to defeat Southern leaders such as Le Roy Percy who worked for racial harmony.

In our time, this process has been reversed. Now white liberals foment among blacks racial hatred against white people. White liberals have made up a false history, symbolized by the New York Times’ 1619 Project, that the United States is based on white racism. This history is now institutionalized in the educational system and the media, which means that the rift between whites and blacks can only worsen.

Identity Politics, the official ideology of the Democrat Party and of what passes for a leftwing, disunites the population. Americans are divided into hostile groups by race, gender, and sexual preference. Neither the Democrats nor the left any longer represent the working class, now defined as the enemy—“the Trump deplorables.” By disuniting Americans, the ruling elites have made effective opposition to them impossible.  As disunity serves the interests of the ruling elites, they will ensure that it continues. We can expect more cultivation of racial animosity.

Can we hope that responsible elements in the black population will step forward and unite with white counterparts to produce the amity among races that a multicultural society requires?  Any black American who attempted such leadership would be dismissed as an “uncle Tom” in service to white racism.

Facts no longer matter in the US or in the Western World. Factual accounts that do not satisfy the woke emotions are dismissed as racist or sexist or some other form of sin. In other words, truth in America has lost its power.  It is no longer possible to combat destructive ideologies with truth. You can test this yourself. Try to convince CNN, New York Times, NPR, a white liberal professor, a member of Antifa, or a black protester that George Floyd killed himself by over-dosing on a dangerous opioid.  They will dismiss the toxicology report as a coverup of racist police violence against blacks, and they will dismiss you as a racist white supremacist.  

 The racist interpretation of America is designed to build anger among blacks and guilt among whites. As black hostility rises and white confidence declines, the society unravels.  

As I have written, the US and the entirety of the Western World are living The Camp of the Saints

Source: https://chaosinformation.wordpress.com/2020/06/21/paul-craig-robertsgeorge-floyd-was-not-killed-by-police/

 

Or Did George Floyd Die of a Drug 

 

Overdose?

 

Fatal Fentanyl: A Forensic Analysis

JOHN-PAUL LEONARD • JUNE 16, 2020

 • 5,500 WORDS • 581 COMMENTS • REPLY

 

“The centre cannot hold; Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world.” — W. B. Yeats, 1919

 

Truth is the first victim in politics. Factions and passions rule. Random facts are picked as weapons, no one thinks things through.

We need to understand the facts surrounding the death of George Floyd.


Many key facts are being ignored:

    Floyd’s blood tests showed a concentration of Fentanyl of about three times the fatal dose.

 ·   Fentanyl is a dangerous opioid 50 times more potent than heroin. It has rapidly become the most common cause of death among drug addicts.

 ·   The knee hold used by the police is not a choke hold, it does not impede breathing. It is a body restraint and is not known to have ever caused fatal injury.

 

    Floyd already began to complain “I can’t breathe” a few minutes before the neck restraint was applied, while resisting the officers when they tried to get him into the squad car. Fentanyl affects the breathing, causing death by respiratory arrest.

   It was normal procedure to restrain Floyd because he was resisting arrest, probably in conjunction with excited delirium (EXD), an episode of violent agitation brought on by a drug overdose, typically brief and ending in death from cardiopulmonary arrest.

   The official autopsy did indeed give cardiopulmonary arrest as the cause of death, and stated that injuries he sustained during the arrest were not life-threatening.

   Videos of the arrest do not show police beating or striking Floyd, only calmly restraining him

    In one video Floyd is heard shouting and groaning loudly and incoherently while restrained on the ground, which appears to be a sign of the violent, shouting phase of EXD. His ability to resist four officers trying to get him into the squad car is typical of EXD cases. A short spurt of superhuman strength is a classic EXD symptom.

 

Minneapolis police officers have been charged with Floyd’s murder. Yet all the evidence points to the fact that Floyd had taken a drug overdose so strong that his imminent death could hardly have been prevented. In all likelihood, the police were neither an intentional nor accidental cause of his death. These crucial facts have been completely ignored in the uproar.

 

It is widely believed that George Floyd died from a police officer’s knee on his neck, whether due to asphyxiation or neck injury. That may be how it looks, to a naïve viewer. In reality, the county autopsy report says he died of a heart attack,[1] and states that there were “no life-threatening injuries.” Then how could they conclude it was homicide?

 

When scientists review scientific papers, they look primarily at the evidence, and give less weight to the conclusions, which are only the other fellow’s opinions. To blindly follow “expert opinions” is the Authoritarian View of Knowledge. This is no real knowledge at all, because to assess whether an expert is always right, we would need infinite knowledge, and doubly so when experts disagree. Not thinking for oneself is not really thinking.

 

So let us stick to the evidence. The county’s ambivalent autopsy also included the following hard facts: “Toxicology Findings: Blood samples collected at 9:00 p.m. on May 25th, before Floyd died, tested positive for the following: Fentanyl 11 ng/mL, Norfentanyl 5.6 ng/mL,… Methamphetamine 19 ng/mL… 86 ng/mL of morphine,” but draws no conclusions therefrom, noting only that “Quantities are given for those who are medically inclined.”

 

Shouldn’t we be so inclined? This fentanyl concentration, including its norfentanyl metabolite at its molecular weight, was 20.6 ng/mL That is over three times the lethal overdose, following earlier reports where the highest dose survived was 4.6 ng/mL.[2]
 

If ever there was a leap before a look, we are in it now. Masses of people have become extremists, based on conclusions that are as false as they are hasty.

 

Regarding suffocation, the county medical examiner’s report found “no physical findings that support a diagnosis of traumatic asphyxia or strangulation.”[3] Pressure applied to the side of the neck, as in this case, and not to the throat, has little or no effect on breathing. One can easily verify this oneself.[4]

 

One difficulty is that there are public statements to the effect that the coroner ruled it a homicide, and the title of the autopsy report includes the term “neck compression.” But the words “homicide,” “restraint,” “stress” or “compression” do not appear in the 20-page body of the report. References to the neck are few — a couple minor abrasions, a contusion on the shoulder, and “The cervical spinal column is palpably stable and free of hemorrhage.” It is as if the title was chosen in regard to what was expected or proposed, but which was never found, and the title was never updated. There seems to be no support at all in the report body for the report title, which reads, “Cardiopulmonary arrest complicating law enforcement subdual, restraint, and neck compression.”

 

The term “cause of death” does not appear. The words “death” and “fatal” only appear in this comment in the lab report: “Signs associated with fentanyl toxicity include severe respiratory depression, seizures, hypotension, coma and death.

In fatalitiesfrom fentanyl, blood concentrations are variable and have been reported as low as 3 ng/mL.” Floyd’s fentanyl level was seven times higher.

 

If first impressions via the media fooled the coroner’s office, until they examined the body, we too can be fooled at first, but change our opinion according to the evidence.

 

Excited Delirium Syndrome

 

An additional hypothesis involves Excited Delirium Syndrome (EXD), a symptom of drug overdose which sometimes appears in the final minutes preceding death. EXD typically results from fatal drug abuse, in past years from cocaine or crack, more recently from fentanyl, which is 50 times more potent than heroin. Especially dangerous are street drugs like meth, heroin or cocaine laced with fentanyl.

 

According to an article in the Western Journal of Emergency Medicine (WJEM), 2011:[5] “Excited delirium (EXD) is characterized by agitation, aggression, acute distress and sudden death, often in the pre-hospital care setting. It is typically associated with the use of drugs. Subjects typically die from cardiopulmonary arrest… all accounts describe almost the exact same sequence of events: delirium with agitation (fear, panic, shouting, violence and hyperactivity), sudden cessation of struggle, respiratory arrest and death.”

It appears that an EXD episode began when the officers tried to get Floyd into the squad car. He resisted, citing “claustrophobia” — the onset of the fear and panic phase, and “I can’t breathe” — difficulty breathing due to fentanyl locking into the breathing receptors in the brain. (Classic symptoms of EXD are highlighted in bold.) He then exhibited unexpected strength from the adrenaline spike in successfully resisting the efforts of four officers to get him into the car. We may never know whether Floyd’s agitation was caused purely from the EXD adrenaline spike, or if it was aggravated by police attempts to subdue him — but a subject defying the efforts of multiple officers to subdue him is a very common theme.

When Chauvin pulled him out of the car he fell to the ground, perhaps due to disorientation and reduced coordination. Presumably this was when he injured his mouth and his nose started to bleed, and the police made the first call for paramedics.

 

While restrained on the ground, Floyd exhibited agitation (shouting and hyperactivity, trying to move back and forth) for several minutes. There is one brief video at this point. One hears Floyd shouting very loudly, as in the agitated delirium phase — it sounds like, “My face is stoned… ah hah, ah haaa, ah please people, please, please let me stand, please, ah hah, ah haaa!”[6]. In a few minutes this was followed by “sudden cessation of struggle, respiratory arrest and death,” shown in a later video, where he becomes exhausted, and had stopped breathing when the ambulance arrived.[7]

 

It appears that disorientation had already set in when the store employees went to Floyd’s car and asked him to return the cigarettes he had bought for a fake $20 bill. He refused, and they reported the incident to the police, saying that he appeared to be very intoxicated. He certainly must have been, or he would have either returned the cigarettes or left quickly to avoid arrest. Loss of judgment is a symptom of the syndrome; this includes futile efforts to resist arrest.

 

Police Intervention and Intentions

 

The EXD diagnosis is controversial and in some quarters is viewed as an alibi for police brutality. The WJEM authors note, “Since the victims frequently die while being restrained or in the custody of law enforcement, there has been speculation over the years of police brutality being the underlying cause. However, it is important to note that the vast majority of deaths occur suddenly prior to capture, in the emergency department (ED), or unwitnessed at home.”

 

Regarding restraint, they note, “people experiencing EXD are highly agitated, violent, and show signs of unexpected strength, so it is not surprising that most require physical restraint. The prone maximal restraint position (PMRP, also known as “hobble” or “hogtie”), where the person’s ankles and wrists are bound together behind their back, has been used extensively by field personnel. In far fewer cases, persons have been tied to a hospital gurney or manually held prone with knee pressure on the back or neck.”

 

This latter position is what the accused officer Chauvin was applying, although at one point the team did consider using a hobble. Physical restraint of the subject has always been the classical procedure, to prevent the subject harming themselves or others. It has been proposed that restraint helps to forestall injury and death by conserving the subject’s energy, but most experts believe that by leading to an intense struggle, it increases the likelihood of a fatal outcome.

 

Since knowingly using counterfeit currency is a fairly serious offense, the Minneapolis officers were required to arrest Floyd and try to bring him in. When he violently resisted, the optimal choice could have been to let him sit against a wall and guard him while calling an ambulance. To be able to quickly switch from law enforcement mode to emergency care mode requires training in recognizing the symptoms.

 

The charge sheet against Chauvin included this exchange between the two white officers on the squad:[8] “”I am worried about excited delirium or whatever,” Lane said. “That’s why we have him on his stomach,” Chauvin said.”

 

According to this dialogue, Chauvin was apparently was trying to follow the protocol recommended by WJEM. Since Floyd was on his stomach, Chauvin’s knee pinned him at the side of his neck, and did not impede breathing. Commentators are referring to Chauvin “kneeling” on Floyd’s neck, or resting his weight on it. From videos it is hard to gauge how much weight he applied, but the correct procedure is just enough to restrain movement, not to crush the person.

 

Chauvin and his team might not have done everything perfectly, but it is easy to underestimate the difficulty of police work, particularly in cases of resisting arrest, whether willfully or due to intoxication. If they had been clairvoyant clinicians, they would have called an ambulance the moment they saw him. Better training is needed. Was the police department then responsible? Might the department have given the needed training if the AMA had acknowledged the existence of the syndrome? This brings up a paradox: could police critics who deny the syndrome then bear part of the responsibility for the deaths they decry? The syndrome is being recognized by law enforcement after the fact. It needs to be recognized as it is happening.

 

The American College of Emergency Physicians’ White Paper Report on Excited Delirium Syndrome (ACEP, 2009)[9] notes that “a law enforcement officer (LEO) is often present with a person suffering from ExDS because the situation at hand has degenerated to such a degree that someone has deemed it necessary to contact a person of authority to deal with it. LEOs are in the difficult and sometimes impossible position of having to recognize this as a medical emergency, attempting to control an irrational and physically resistive person,… This already challenging situation has the potential for intense public scrutiny coupled with the expectation of a perfect outcome. Anything less creates a situation of potential public outrage. Unfortunately, this dangerous medical situation makes perfect outcomes difficult.” In other words, officers need to be policemen, paramedics and public relations experts all at once.

With a fatal overdose there is no good outcome possible, but there is no way for police to foresee that. Sometimes EXD can last longer, and it is not always fatal. Perhaps the ACEP Task Force on EXD will update their report and provide guidelines to help police identify and deal with EXD while avoiding accusations of police brutality.

 

In one video[10] Chauvin continued to apply the neck restraint although bystanders repeatedly objected, and even after Floyd stopped moving. As Floyd became exhausted, it could have been reasonable to relax the restraint to see if it was really necessary. Chauvin didn’t seem to respond to the bystanders to give a medical reason for the restraint. His actions were consistent with a belief that police should restrain the subject until medevacs arrive. Videos show the police focused on restraint, never beating or striking Floyd. The restraint and verbal exchanges with Floyd are also consistent with a belief that he was resisting arrest, by refusing to get in the squad car. When he said “I can’t breathe,” they responded “You’re talking fine.” When they said “Get in the car,” he didn’t agree to.

Subjects suffering from EXD usually resist arrest violently, which requires police to restrain them, but when police see signs of EXD, they also need to call an ambulance. It appears the police may have called for paramedics first when Floyd developed a nosebleed, then for an ambulance, which arrived after Floyd had stopped breathing.[11] .

 

Videos of EXD incidents generally show subjects violently resisting arrest, and requiring multiple officers to subdue them. There is one news clip about a police department that was trained to regard EXD as a medical and not a criminal issue, and avoid physical restraint as far as possible; the results are much better.[12]

 

EXD seems to be the most likely reason why Floyd suddenly refused to get into the squad car, and began to shout and writhe on the ground. With or without EXD or police intervention, he was going to die quickly from fentanyl, short of immediate intensive care. A common treatment for EXD is sedation with drugs like ketamine. The usual antidote for fentanyl is naloxone. Higher levels of fentanyl may require intravenous naloxone for 24 hours or more.

 

Fentanyl is so deadly because it acts so fast and binds so tightly to dopamine receptors in the brain — even those that control breathing, unlike other narcotics.[13] When Floyd complained “I can’t breathe,” although he was breathing,[14]
 and then completely stopped breathing, this was the onset of respiratory arrest, which is how a fentanyl overdose kills.

While police work is needed to trace the source of these dangerous drugs, the problems of drug addiction and crime have deep causes and can only be contained, not solved, by the police. Whatever our society has been doing about these problems is not working.

 

Right now, our civilization risks being torn apart by the passions of extremism, due to a misunderstanding. Please share this analysis, as an appeal to return to reason.

 

Reviewer comment: “My first thought is why it has been left to you to figure this out, when we pay professional journalists to investigate these things, and why aren’t the police and politicians telling us about this.”

 

A good question which gives a clue to something I’ve been wondering about. When other commentators publish within hours, why does it take me a week or two to finish an article like this? Journalists are usually under a deadline to produce stories quickly, whereas it takes a lot of research and reflection to develop an original thesis into a fair and coherent explanation of events.

 

Everyone tends to have an agenda, and to look for facts to support it. Police brutality or looters running amok may be more newsworthy than a chronic problem like drug abuse. The best agenda now is to take a break to focus on facts, or else an “Excited Delirium” could become a contagion that engulfs our nation.

 

Part II. The Death of Tony Timpa

 

A highly pertinent question: Has there ever been a confirmed death from a knee hold before? Not finding any data by searching the Net, I posted the question on Quora.[15]One answer soon came.

 

A young white man died in Dallas a few years ago, after being restrained by the police with the knee on his back. My respondent believed he suffocated, but the actual autopsy said cardiac arrest due to cocaine, overdose EXD, and stress from restraint by police officers.

 

Tony Timpa had not only taken an overdose of cocaine, plus he was off his anti-schizophrenia medicine. Mental illness can also be a trigger for EXD, and according to the autopsy report, he displayed all the classic symptoms. The first phase, fear and panic, was fear of the onset of delirium itself — he himself called 911 for help. By the time the police arrived, security guards had already handcuffed him to restrain him. He was incoherent, out of control, found lying on the ground, the typical EXD position. The police pinned him down with a knee on his back for 13 minutes, saying he was at risk of rolling into the roadway, and suddenly he was dead.

 

Tony Timpa died in 2016. The family got the run-around,[16] and an autopsy was not released until 2019. The body cam footage was released, which showed the police behaving callously towards the subject. The officers were originally charged with homicide, but it was found they were not at fault, charges were dropped and they were reinstated. Timpa’s case is very similar to Floyd case in many ways, and there are also many differences — the starkest of course being the intensity of the public reaction.

 

Here is the text of the Timpa autopsy.[17]

 Case: ME Page 7 of8

Timpa, Anthony Alan

Based on the case history and autopsy findings, it is my opinion that Anthony Alan Timpa, a 32-year-old white male, died as a result of sudden cardiac death due to the toxic effects of cocaine and physiologic stress associated with physical restraint.

Cardiac hypertrophy and bipolar disorder contributed to his death.

The mechanism of death in cases such as this is sometimes referred to as “excited delirium.” Classically, people affected by EDS are witnessed to exhibit erratic or aggressive behavior, and will often “throw off” attempts at restraint, requiring multiple people to subdue them. The person will appear to calm down and will suddenly become unresponsive. Most cases are associated with drug intoxication and/or illness.

In this case, several factors likely contributed to the death. The surveillance and body cam footage and witness reports fit the classic scenario of excited delirium and cocaine use and illness (bipolar disorder) are common predisposing risk factors for EDS. Cocaine leads to increased heart rate and increased blood pressure, making a cardiac arrhythmia more likely. Due to his prone position and physical restraint by an officer, an element of mechanical or positional asphyxia cannot be ruled out (although he was seen to be yelling and fighting for the majority ofthe restraint). His enlarged heart size also put him at risk for sudden cardiac death.

Although the decedent only had superficial injuries, the manner of death will be ruled a homicide, as the stress of being restrained and extreme physical exertion contributed to his demise.

 

MANNER OF DEATH: Homicide

[Signatures and seals of medical examiners]

(Note that homicide is not the same as murder, it also includes unintentional or accidental actions contributing to death.)

 

Anthony Timpa autopsy p. 5, blood tests — Cocaine and metabolites

 

Cocaine, 0.647 mg/L

Ecgonine Methyl Ester, 0.378 mg/L

Benzoylecgonine, 0.843 mg/L

The lethal dose of cocaine ranges from around 0.1 mg/L to 0.6 mg/L, according to different sources[18]

 

If we add the three numbers above for cocaine and metabolytes together it comes to about 18 mg/L. This is anywhere from 3 to 18 times the lethal dose. With such an overdose, plus being without his schizophrenia medication, Timpa had little if any chance of surviving.

 

Here’s the Wikipedia entry on Timpa, part of a series on the Dallas police.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dallas_Police_Department#Killing_of_Tony_Timpa

 

“Killing of Tony Timpa [edit]

 

On August 10, 2016, Dallas Police killed Tony Timpa, a 32-year-old resident who had not taken his medication. Timpa was already handcuffed while a group of officers pressed his body into the ground while he squirmed. It took over three years for footage of the incident to be released. The footage contradicted claims by Dallas Police that Timpa was aggressive… Criminal charges against three officers were dropped in March 2019 and officers returned to active duty.”

 

Wikipedia doesn’t even mention cocaine, although that was the main cause of death. Likewise, the Wikipedia article https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Killing_of_George_Floyd makes no mention of a drug overdose or excited delirium. By entitling the articles “Killing” rather than “Death,” Wikipedians appoint themselves as a court of law.

 

It must be observed that the Minneapolis officers acted with far more consideration towards Floyd than the treatment Timpa received in Dallas. The way the officers made fun of Timpa was a scandal.[19] Then they were surprised when he suddenly died.

 

It is strange that George Floyd’s case is taken as proof of systemic racism, when Tony Timpa got much worse treatment — even though Timpa hadn’t committed any crime, had no police record, and even called 911 himself.

 

Isn’t it odd, when we have a problem in the United States of many shootings by — and of — the police, that such an uproar has arisen, over a case where the police actually had little or nothing to do with the man’s demise?

 

The stress of restraint is most likely incidental. As reported by the WJEM, “Victims who do not immediately come to police attention are often found dead in the bathroom surrounded by wet towels and/or clothing and empty ice trays, apparently succumbing during failed attempts to rapidly cool down.”

 

Hyperthermia or high body temperature is a classic symptom of EXD. Enormous energy is released by an uncontrolled adrenaline spike. The heat also feeds delirium, which is a familiar symptom of high fever.

 

Normally, it’s assumed that stress factors contribute to a heart attack, as medical examiners wrote in both the Floyd and Timpa cases. Yet the WJEM notes that “one important study found that only 18 of 214 individuals identified as having EXD died while being restrained or taken into custody.” All victims died of cardiopulmonary arrest. Drug overdose and EXD are sufficient causes for this outcome.

 

Both Floyd and Timpa had taken overdoses at triple the lethal level. Enough drugs to kill them three times over. Yet you can only die once… so how could the stress of restraint contribute more to their deaths? You can’t contribute to a glass that’s already full three times over. That is a little like saying that someone died because their parachute didn’t open, and the weight of their backpack also contributed to the fall. But they die from the fall once they hit the ground, whether it’s at 120 mph or 122 mph.

 

It’s true, that in this analogy, the extra weight makes the jumper hit the ground a little sooner. Forcibly restraining the victim can cause them to struggle and consume energy more quickly, accelerating the burnout. Giving the subject a little space and empathy could help calm them. In this case, restraint might reduce energy loss. If that delays cardiac arrest until an ambulance arrives, the patient might be saved. Victims are less likely to struggle when strapped to a gurney than when held down by police.[20]

 

We can compare Excited Delirium to an explosion or a wildfire, that rapidly consumes all the energy in the body. The police try to contain the explosion by restraining it, but can one blame the firefighter for the fire? The explosion continues until all the fuel is gone. Then life’s flame flickers out, and the drug-intoxicated body can not be resuscitated.[21] Presumably, the blood must be circulating in order for the antidote to neutralize the fentanyl.

In conclusion, excited delirium should be treated as a medical condition, at high risk of ending quickly in sudden death. An ambulance should be called immediately. Only the minimum necessary restraint should be applied. Police and paramedics should be trained in the symptoms and handling protocols.

It would be helpful if the AMA would recognize EXD as a real condition, rather than dismissing it as a cover story for police brutality. Ignorance of the symptoms can lead to unintentional cruelty by police, when they assume they are confronted by a typical case of a criminal violently resisting arrest, rather than a patient with a life-threatening intoxication.

 

Notes

[1] https://lawandcrime.com/george-floyd-death/authorities-just-released-george-
floyds-complete-autopsy-report-read-it-here/
 

 

The full autopsy report was published here

 https://www.hennepin.us/-/media/hennepinus/residents/public-safety/documents
/Autopsy_2020-3700_Floyd.pdf
 

 

Diagnoses are summarized on pp. 1 and 2: I. The “blunt force injuries” are basically minor cuts and bruises: “cutaneous” injuries and contusions from handcuffing. II. Chronic conditions: Heart disease, hypertension and enlarged heart. These all tend to accelerate death from a drug overdose. They can also develop from long-term drug abuse. III. No injuries to the front of the neck or throat were found. This full 76-page report does not contain the word “homicide.”

 

[2] https://www.acsh.org/news/2017/02/02/fentanyl-overdose-dont-count-
naloxone-save-you-10822
 “The patients who were dead on arrival had gone into cardiac arrest due to blood concentrations of fentanyl that were much higher than what is administered therapeutically. “ Patients who died in hospital had concentrations of 9.5 ng/mL to 13 ng/mL. See also note 13. In other studies of death from heroin and morphine, there were deaths from only 100 ng/ml of morphine and “all cases with a blood concentration of 200 ng/ml and more of free morphine displayed a fatal outcome.”

 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/11040428_Fatal_versus_non-fatal_heroin_overdose_Blood_morphine_concentrations_with_fatal_outcome_in_comparison_
to_those_of_intoxicated_drivers
(Heroin quickly metabolizes into morphine.) Fentanyl is considered 100 times more potent than morphine. By this comparison, Floyd’s blood fentanyl concentration could have been 10 times the fatal level. In addition his morphine concentration of 86 ng/mL would usually be fatal by itself.
Concentration levels are relative to the volume of blood, so are independent of body size.

 

[3] https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2020/06/01/george-floyd-independent-autopsy-findings-released-monday/5307185002/ A report commissioned by the Floyd family stated that asphyxiation from sustained pressure was consistent with the evidence, but the author Michael Baden didn’t have access to all the evidence, and chose not to endorse his opinion with the “expert opinion” label.

 

[4] The knee on the neck is a body hold, not a chokehold or carotid restraint, which involves putting pressure precisely on both carotid arteries, located on either side of the throat. A carotid restraint is usually applied by an elbow, and causes the subject to pass out in as little as 15 seconds. Blocking the arteries does not stop the breathing or heartbeat (pulmonary or cardiac arrest), which Floyd suffered after being restrained for many minutes. Once pressure on the arteries is released, the subject normally regains consciousness quickly.

 

[5] https://westjem.com/articles/excited-delirium.html

 

[6] https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/new-video-appears-show-george-floyd-ground-three-officers-n1217476/

 

[7]https://www.facebook.com/darnellareallprettymarie/videos/1425398217661280/

 

[8] https://www.startribune.com/protests-build-anew-after-fired-officer-charged-jailed/570869672

 

[9]https://www.prisonlegalnews.org/media/publications/acep_report_on_excited_
delirium_syndrome_sept_2009.pdf

 

See also the decision by the Ninth Circuit Court, “[t]he problems posed by, and thus the tactics to be employed against, an unarmed, emotionally distraught individual who is creating a disturbance or resisting arrest are ordinarily different from those involved in law enforcement efforts to subdue an armed and dangerous criminal who has recently committed a serious offense.” in “Explaining the Unexplainable: Excited Delirium Syndrome and Its Impact on the Objective Reasonableness Standard for Allegations of Excessive

Force,” https://scholarship.law.slu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1379&context=lj The first few pages relate a narrative similar to the Floyd case, involving multiple police subduing a violent EXD victim, who suddenly dies from exhaustion. A media uproar then arises against alleged police brutality.

 

[10]https://www.facebook.com/darnellareallprettymarie/videos/1425398217661280/

 

[11] From the incident report of the fire truck that was called to the scene, it appears that both police and bystanders called 911 for emergency medical services (EMS). The first call was Code 2, apparently for Floyd’s nosebleed, which summoned a fire truck, followed by a more urgent code 3, which was said to bring an ambulance within six minutes. It appears the police called the ambulance when Floyd’s breathing and heartbeat stopped. https://www.startribune.com/first-responders-worked-nearly-an-hour-to-save-floyd-before-he-was-pronounced-dead/570806682/ 

 

“Floyd goes limp and appears to lose consciousness. Hennepin EMS then arrive six minutes after the distress call.” The article refers to the incident report by the fire truck, http://www.minneapolismn.gov/www/groups/public/@mpd/documents/webcontent/wcmsp-224680.pdf which has a note implying the first call to EMS was from police and another call came from bystanders: “No clear info on pt [patient] or location was given by either initial pd [police department] officers or bystanders.” We need an incident report from the ambulance.

 

[12] TV news clips showing police restraining subjects who are exhibiting EXD symptoms and violently resisting arrest https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6qCqjuqEWEc A TV news report and cellphone video on a more humane method of managing an EXD case, thanks to police training, putting safety of the subject and of bystanders first, rather than restraints. However, no details are given about the outcome or the drug dose. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6qCqjuqEWEc

[13] https://columnhealth.com/blog_posts/why-is-fentanyl-so-dangerous/.

 

Deaths from fentanyl have skyrocketed in the last seven years. In one incident in California, superlethal fentanyl doses of 53 ng/mL were successfully reversed with intravenous naloxone. However, some patients were dead on arrival. https://www.drugs.com/illicit/fentanyl.html

[14] Wikipedia has a detailed narrative of the incident here https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Killing_of_George_Floyd. Certain notes there support the thesis of fentanyl intoxication, and resisting arrest as part of an EXD syndrome. Floyd struggled with Lane before leaving his own vehicle, and again when Kueng, then all four officers, tried to get him into the squad car. Floyd already complained he couldn’t breathe before they tried to get him into the police car, without any neck restraint, indicating the onset of respiratory depression from fentanyl. https://abcnews.go.com/US/george-floyd-protest-updates-arrests-america-approaching-10000/story?id=71038665 

 

“They all tried to force Floyd into the backseat, during which time Floyd said he could not breathe, according to the complaint.”

 

He also fell down twice, which could be seen either as a sign of intoxication or resisting arrest. The officers knew it was a drug overdose, as Thao told bystanders, “This is why you don’t do drugs, kids.” By the way, this Wikipedia article should be named “Death of George Floyd,” as an accused is innocent until proven guilty.

 

[15] https://www.quora.com/Has-there-ever-been-any-previous-confirmed-record-of-death-resulting-from-a-knee-hold-before-the-Floyd-Chauvin-case-Good-question-for-experts-on-forensics-death-in-custody-data-internet-sleuths-police-medics-or

 

[16] https://www.dallasnews.com/news/investigations/2019/08/02/police-responded-to-his-911-call-for-help-he-died-what-happened-to-tony-timpa/

 

[17] https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/6226349-SWIFS-Investigative-Narrative.html#document/p7/a515249

 

[18] http://www.forensicmed.co.uk/science/toxicology/cocaine/ , https://academic.oup.com/jat/article/38/1/46/831276

 

[19] https://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/01/us/tony-timpa-dallas-police-body-cam.html

 

[20] “Probably negligible involvement of position in contribution of death in cases of excited delirium, although allowing patients to breathe effectively is obviously important.” https://emergencymedicinecases.com/episode-3-excited-delirium/

 

[21] “According to Dr. Assaad Sayah, Chief of Emergency Medicine at Cambridge Health Alliance, Excited Delirium Syndrome can be best explained as a ‘physical response to an actual psychological [or drug] problem resulting in their autonomic systems producing too much adrenaline.’ Dr. Sayah analogizes it to ‘having too much nitrous in a car; eventually the engine will blow up.’ In most cases, the cause of death is either ‘a heart attack or, less frequently, respiratory failure.’ Dr. Vincent Di Maio estimated that Excited Delirium Syndrome kills 800 people every year in police altercations because the victims “are just overexciting [their] heart from the drugs and from the struggle.’” Op.

cit.https://scholarship.law.slu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1379&context=lj

 

Source: https://www.unz.com/article/or-did-george-floyd-die-of-a-drug-overdose/